Energy Saving Tips for Industries Consumers

Tips for Energy Conservation for Industries
THERMAL UTILITIES

Boilers
  • Preheat combustion air with waste heat
    (22 0C reduction in flue gas temperature increases boiler efficiency
    by 1%).

  • Use variable speed drives on large boiler combustion air fans with
    variable flows.

  • Burn wastes if permitted.

  • Insulate exposed heated oil tanks.

  • Clean burners, nozzles, strainers, etc.

  • Inspect oil heaters for proper oil temperature.

  • Close burner air and/or stack dampers when the burner is off to minimize heat loss

    up the stack.

  • Improve oxygen trim control (e.g. — limit excess air to less than 10% on clean fuels).

    (5% reduction in excess air increases boiler efficiency by 1% or: 1% reduction of

    residual oxygen in stack gas increases boiler efficiency by 1%.)

  • Automate/optimize boiler blowdown. Recover boiler blowdown heat.

  • Use boiler blowdown to help warm the back-up boiler.

  • Optimize deaerator venting.

  • Inspect door gaskets.

  • Inspect for scale and sediment on the water side
    (A 1 mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could increase fuel consumption by 5
    to 8%).

  • Inspect for soot, flyash, and slag on the fire side
    (A 3 mm thick soot deposition on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in
    fuel consumption to the tune of 2.5%.)

  • Optimize boiler water treatment.

  • Add an economizer to preheat boiler feedwater using exhaust heat.

  • Recycle steam condensate.

  • Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient

    mode for operating multiple boilers.

  • Consider multiple or modular boiler units instead of one or two large boilers.

  • Establish a boiler efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and

    follow-up, then make a boiler efficiency-maintenance program a part of your
    continuous energy management program.

    Steam System

    • Fix steam leaks and condensate leaks
      (A 3 mm diameter hole on a pipe line carrying 7 kg/cm2 steam would
      waste 33 kilo litres of fuel oil per year).

    • Accumulate work orders for repair of steam leaks that can’t be fixed
      during the heating season due to system shutdown requirements. Tag
      each such leak with a durable tag with a good description.

    • Use back pressure steam turbines to produce lower steam pressures.

    • Use more-efficient steam desuperheating methods.

    • Ensure process temperatures are correctly controlled.

    • Maintain lowest acceptable process steam pressures.
      • Reduce hot water wastage to drain
  • Remove or blank off all redundant steam piping.

  • Ensure condensate is returned or re-used in the process

    (6 0C raise in feed water temperature by economiser/condensate recovery

    corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption, in boiler).

  • Preheat boiler feed-water.

  • Recover boiler blowdown.

  • Check operation of steam traps.

  • Remove air from indirect steam using equipment

    (0.25 mm thick air film offers the same resistance to heat transfer as a 330 mm thick

    copper wall.)

  • Inspect steam traps regularly and repair malfunctioning traps promptly.

  • Consider recovery of vent steam (e.g. — on large flash tanks).

  • Use waste steam for water heating.

  • Use an absorption chiller to condense exhaust steam before returning the

    condensate to the boiler.

  • Use electric pumps instead of steam ejectors when cost benefits permit

  • Establish a steam efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and

    follow-up, then make a steam efficiency-maintenance program a part of your
    continuous energy management program. 


Furnaces

  • Check against infiltration of air: Use doors or air curtains.

  • Monitor O2 /CO2/CO and control excess air to the optimum level.

  • Improve burner design, combustion control and instrumentation.

  • Ensure that the furnace combustion chamber is under slight

    positive pressure.

  • Use ceramic fibres in the case of batch operations.

  • Match the load to the furnace capacity.

  • Retrofit with heat recovery device.

  • Investigate cycle times and reduce.

  • Provide temperature controllers.

  • Ensure that flame does not touch the stock.

    Insulation

  • Repair damaged insulation
    (A bare steam pipe of 150 mm diameter and 100 m length,
    carrying saturated steam at 8 kg/cm2 would waste 25,000
    litres furnace oil in a year.)

  • Insulate any hot or cold metal or insulation.

  • Replace wet insulation.

  • Use an infrared gun to check for cold wall areas during cold

    weather or hot wall areas during hot weather.

  • Ensure that all insulated surfaces are cladded with aluminum

  • Insulate all flanges, valves and couplings

  • Insulate open tanks

    (70% heat losses can be reduced by floating a layer of 45 mm diameter
    polypropylene (plastic) balls on the surface of 90 0C hot liquid/condensate).

Waste heat recovery

  • Recover heat from flue gas, engine cooling water, engine
    exhaust, low pressure waste steam, drying oven exhaust,
    boiler blowdown, etc.

  • Recover heat from incinerator off-gas.

  • Use waste heat for fuel oil heating, boiler feedwater heating,

    outside air heating, etc.

  • Use chiller waste heat to preheat hot water.

  • Use heat pumps.

  • Use absorption refrigeration.

  • Use thermal wheels, run-around systems, heat pipe systems, and air-to-air

    exchangers.

    ELECTRICAL UTILITIES

    Electricity Distribution System

    • Optimise the tariff structure with utility supplier

    • Schedule your operations to maintain a high load factor

    • Shift loads to off-peak times if possible.

    • Minimise maximum demand by tripping loads through a demand

      controller

    • Stagger start-up times for equipment with large starting currents to

      minimize load peaking.

    • Use standby electric generation equipment for on-peak high load periods.

    • Correct power factor to at least 0.90 under rated load conditions.

    • Relocate transformers close to main loads.

    • Set transformer taps to optimum settings.

    • Disconnect primary power to transformers that do not serve any active loads

    • Consider on-site electric generation or cogeneration.

    • Export power to grid if you have any surplus in your captive generation

    • Check utility electric meter with your own meter.

    • Shut off unnecessary computers, printers, and copiers at night.

      Motors

      • Properly size to the load for optimum efficiency.
        (High efficiency motors offer of 4 – 5% higher efficiency than
        standard motors)

      • Use energy-efficient motors where economical.

      • Use synchronous motors to improve power factor.

      • Check alignment.

      • Provide proper ventilation

        (For every 10 oC increase in motor operating temperature over recommended peak,

        the motor life is estimated to be halved)

      • Check for under-voltage and over-voltage conditions.

      • Balance the three-phase power supply.

        (An imbalanced voltage can reduce 3 – 5% in motor input power)

      • Demand efficiency restoration after motor rewinding.

        (If rewinding is not done properly, the efficiency can be reduced by 5 – 8%)


Drives

  • Use variable-speed drives for large variable loads.

  • Use high-efficiency gear sets.

  • Use precision alignment.

  • Check belt tension regularly.

  • Eliminate variable-pitch pulleys.

  • Use flat belts as alternatives to v-belts.

  • Use synthetic lubricants for large gearboxes.

  • Eliminate eddy current couplings.

  • Shut them off when not needed.

    Fans

  • Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet cones for fan air intakes.

  • Avoid poor flow distribution at the fan inlet.

  • Minimize fan inlet and outlet obstructions.

  • Clean screens, filters, and fan blades regularly.

  • Use aerofoil-shaped fan blades.

  • Minimize fan speed.

  • Use low-slip or flat belts.

  • Check belt tension regularly.

  • Eliminate variable pitch pulleys.

  • Use variable speed drives for large variable fan loads.

  • Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation

  • Eliminate leaks in ductwork.

  • Minimise bends in ductwork

  • Turn fans off when not needed.

    Blowers

  • Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet ducts or cones for air
    intakes.

  • Minimize blower inlet and outlet obstructions.

  • Clean screens and filters regularly.

  • Minimize blower speed.

  • Use low-slip or no-slip belts.

  • Check belt tension regularly.

  • Eliminate variable pitch pulleys.

  • Use variable speed drives for large variable blower loads.

  • Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation.

  • Eliminate ductwork leaks.

  • Turn blowers off when they are not needed.

    Pumps

  • Operate pumping near best efficiency point.

  • Modify pumping to minimize throttling.

  • Adapt to wide load variation with variable speed drives or

    sequenced control of smaller units.

  • Stop running both pumps — add an auto-start for an on-line

    spare or add a booster pump in the problem area.

  • Use booster pumps for small loads requiring higher pressures.

  • Increase fluid temperature differentials to reduce pumping rates.

  • Repair seals and packing to minimize water waste.

  • Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce pump power requirements.
• Use siphon effect to advantage: don’t waste pumping head with a free-fall (gravity)
return.

Compressors

  • Consider variable speed drive for variable load on positive
    displacement compressors.

  • Use a synthetic lubricant if the compressor manufacturer permits it.

  • Be sure lubricating oil temperature is not too high (oil degradation
    and lowered viscosity) and not too low (condensation

    contamination).

  • Change the oil filter regularly.

  • Periodically inspect compressor intercoolers for proper functioning.

  • Use waste heat from a very large compressor to power an absorption chiller or

    preheat process or utility feeds.

  • Establish a compressor efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit

    and follow-up, then make a compressor efficiency-maintenance program a part of
    your continuous energy management program.


    Compressed air

  • Install a control system to coordinate multiple air compressors.

  • Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine

    the most-efficient mode for operating multiple air compressors.

  • Avoid over sizing — match the connected load.

  • Load up modulation-controlled air compressors. (They use

    almost as much power at partial load as at full load.)

  • Turn off the back-up air compressor until it is needed.

  • Reduce air compressor discharge pressure to the lowest acceptable setting.

    (Reduction of 1 kg/cm2 air pressure (8 kg/cm2 to 7 kg/cm2) would result in 9% input

    power savings. This will also reduce compressed air leakage rates by 10%)

  • Use the highest reasonable dryer dew point settings.

  • Turn off refrigerated and heated air dryers when the air compressors are off.

  • Use a control system to minimize heatless desiccant dryer purging.

  • Minimize purges, leaks, excessive pressure drops, and condensation accumulation.

    (Compressed air leak from 1 mm hole size at 7 kg/cm2 pressure would mean power

    loss equivalent to 0.5 kW)

  • Use drain controls instead of continuous air bleeds through the drains.

  • Consider engine-driven or steam-driven air compression to reduce electrical demand

    charges.

  • Replace standard v-belts with high-efficiency flat belts as the old v-belts wear out.

  • Use a small air compressor when major production load is off.

  • Take air compressor intake air from the coolest (but not air conditioned) location.

    (Every 50C reduction in intake air temperature would result in 1% reduction in

    compressor power consumption)

  • Use an air-cooled aftercooler to heat building makeup air in winter.

  • Be sure that heat exchangers are not fouled (e.g. — with oil).

  • Be sure that air/oil separators are not fouled.

  • Monitor pressure drops across suction and discharge filters and clean or replace

    filters promptly upon alarm.

  • Use a properly sized compressed air storage receiver. Minimize disposal costs by

    using lubricant that is fully demulsible and an effective oil-water separator.

  • Consider alternatives to compressed air such as blowers for cooling, hydraulic rather
    than air cylinders, electric rather than air actuators, and electronic rather than
    pneumatic controls.

  • Use nozzles or venturi-type devices rather than blowing with open compressed air
    lines.

  • Check for leaking drain valves on compressed air filter/regulator sets. Certain rubber-
    type valves may leak continuously after they age and crack.

  • In dusty environments, control packaging lines with high-intensity photocell units
    instead of standard units with continuous air purging of lenses and reflectors.

  • Establish a compressed air efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy
    audit and follow-up, then make a compressed air efficiency-maintenance program a
    part of your continuous energy management program.

    Chillers

  • Increase the chilled water temperature set point if possible.

  • Use the lowest temperature condenser water available that

    the chiller can handle.

    (Reducing condensing temperature by 5.5 0C, results in a 20 –

    25% decrease in compressor power consumption)

  • Increase the evaporator temperature
    (5.50C increase in evaporator temperature reduces compressor power consumption
    by 20 – 25%)

  • Clean heat exchangers when fouled.
    (1 mm scale build-up on condenser tubes can increase energy consumption by 40%)

  • Optimize condenser water flow rate and refrigerated water flow rate.

  • Replace old chillers or compressors with new higher-efficiency models.

  • Use water-cooled rather than air-cooled chiller condensers.

  • Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation.

  • Specify appropriate fouling factors for condensers.

  • Do not overcharge oil.

  • Install a control system to coordinate multiple chillers.

  • Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient

    mode for operating multiple chillers.

  • Run the chillers with the lowest energy consumption. It saves energy cost, fuels a

    base load.

  • Avoid oversizing — match the connected load.

  • Isolate off-line chillers and cooling towers.

  • Establish a chiller efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and

    follow-up, then make a chiller efficiency-maintenance program a part of your
    continuous energy management program.

    HVAC (Heating / Ventilation / Air Conditioning)

    • Tune up the HVAC control system.

    • Consider installing a building automation system (BAS) or energy

      management system (EMS) or restoring an out-of-service one.

    • Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce blower/fan/pump

      power requirements.

    • Eliminate or reduce reheat whenever possible.

    • Use appropriate HVAC thermostat setback.

    • Use morning pre-cooling in summer and pre-heating in winter (i.e. — before electrical

      peak hours).

    • Use building thermal lag to minimize HVAC equipment operating time.
  • In winter during unoccupied periods, allow temperatures to fall as low as possible
    without freezing water lines or damaging stored materials.

  • In summer during unoccupied periods, allow temperatures to rise as high as possible
    without damaging stored materials.

  • Improve control and utilization of outside air.

  • Use air-to-air heat exchangers to reduce energy requirements for heating and cooling

    of outside air.

  • Reduce HVAC system operating hours (e.g. — night, weekend).

  • Optimize ventilation.

  • Ventilate only when necessary. To allow some areas to be shut down when

    unoccupied, install dedicated HVAC systems on continuous loads (e.g. — computer

    rooms).

  • Provide dedicated outside air supply to kitchens, cleaning rooms, combustion

    equipment, etc. to avoid excessive exhausting of conditioned air.

  • Use evaporative cooling in dry climates.

  • Reduce humidification or dehumidification during unoccupied periods.

  • Use atomization rather than steam for humidification where possible.

  • Clean HVAC unit coils periodically and comb mashed fins.

  • Upgrade filter banks to reduce pressure drop and thus lower fan power requirements.

  • Check HVAC filters on a schedule (at least monthly) and clean/change if appropriate.

  • Check pneumatic controls air compressors for proper operation, cycling, and

    maintenance.

  • Isolate air conditioned loading dock areas and cool storage areas using high-speed

    doors or clear PVC strip curtains.

  • Install ceiling fans to minimize thermal stratification in high-bay areas.

  • Relocate air diffusers to optimum heights in areas with high ceilings.

  • Consider reducing ceiling heights.

  • Eliminate obstructions in front of radiators, baseboard heaters, etc.

  • Check reflectors on infrared heaters for cleanliness and proper beam direction.

  • Use professionally-designed industrial ventilation hoods for dust and vapor control.

  • Use local infrared heat for personnel rather than heating the entire area.

  • Use spot cooling and heating (e.g. — use ceiling fans for personnel rather than

    cooling the entire area).

  • Purchase only high-efficiency models for HVAC window units.

  • Put HVAC window units on timer control.

  • Don’t oversize cooling units. (Oversized units will “short cycle” which results in poor

    humidity control.)

  • Install multi-fueling capability and run with the cheapest fuel available at the time.

  • Consider dedicated make-up air for exhaust hoods. (Why exhaust the air conditioning

    or heat if you don’t need to?)

  • Minimize HVAC fan speeds.

  • Consider desiccant drying of outside air to reduce cooling requirements in humid

    climates.

  • Consider ground source heat pumps.

  • Seal leaky HVAC ductwork.

  • Seal all leaks around coils.

  • Repair loose or damaged flexible connections (including those under air handling

    units).

  • Eliminate simultaneous heating and cooling during seasonal transition periods.

  • Zone HVAC air and water systems to minimize energy use.

  • Inspect, clean, lubricate, and adjust damper blades and linkages.
• Establish an HVAC efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and
follow-up, then make an HVAC efficiency-maintenance program a part of your
continuous energy management program.

Refrigeration

  • Use water-cooled condensers rather than air-cooled condensers.

  • Challenge the need for refrigeration, particularly for old batch

    processes.

  • Avoid oversizing — match the connected load.

  • Consider gas-powered refrigeration equipment to minimize electrical

    demand charges.

  • Use “free cooling” to allow chiller shutdown in cold weather.

  • Use refrigerated water loads in series if possible.

  • Convert firewater or other tanks to thermal storage.

  • Don’t assume that the old way is still the best — particularly for energy-intensive low

    temperature systems.

  • Correct inappropriate brine or glycol concentration that adversely affects heat

    transfer and/or pumping energy.

    If it sweats, insulate it, but if it is corroding, replace it first.

  • Make adjustments to minimize hot gas bypass operation.

  • Inspect moisture/liquid indicators.

  • Consider change of refrigerant type if it will improve efficiency.

  • Check for correct refrigerant charge level.

  • Inspect the purge for air and water leaks.

  • Establish a refrigeration efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit

    and follow-up, then make a refrigeration efficiency-maintenance program a part of
    your continuous energy management program.

    Cooling towers

  • Control cooling tower fans based on leaving water temperatures.

  • Control to the optimum water temperature as determined from

    cooling tower and chiller performance data.

  • Use two-speed or variable-speed drives for cooling tower fan

    control if the fans are few. Stage the cooling tower fans with on-off

    control if there are many.

  • Turn off unnecessary cooling tower fans when loads are reduced.

  • Cover hot water basins (to minimize algae growth that contributes to fouling).

  • Balance flow to cooling tower hot water basins.

  • Periodically clean plugged cooling tower water distribution nozzles.

  • Install new nozzles to obtain a more-uniform water pattern.

  • Replace splash bars with self-extinguishing PVC cellular-film fill.

  • On old counterflow cooling towers, replace old spray-type nozzles with new square-

    spray ABS practically-non-clogging nozzles.

  • Replace slat-type drift eliminators with high-efficiency, low-pressure-drop, self-

    extinguishing, PVC cellular units.

  • If possible, follow manufacturer’s recommended clearances around cooling towers

    and relocate or modify structures, signs, fences, dumpsters, etc. that interfere with air

    intake or exhaust.

  • Optimize cooling tower fan blade angle on a seasonal and/or load basis.

  • Correct excessive and/or uneven fan blade tip clearance and poor fan balance.

  • Use a velocity pressure recovery fan ring.

  • Divert clean air-conditioned building exhaust to the cooling tower during hot weather.
  • Re-line leaking cooling tower cold water basins.

  • Check water overflow pipes for proper operating level.

  • Optimize chemical use.

  • Consider side stream water treatment.

  • Restrict flows through large loads to design values.

  • Shut off loads that are not in service.

  • Take blowdown water from the return water header.

  • Optimize blowdown flow rate.

  • Automate blowdown to minimize it.

  • Send blowdown to other uses (Remember, the blowdown does not have to be

    removed at the cooling tower. It can be removed anywhere in the piping system.)

  • Implement a cooling tower winterization plan to minimize ice build-up.

  • Install interlocks to prevent fan operation when there is no water flow.

  • Establish a cooling tower efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit

    and follow-up, then make a cooling tower efficiency-maintenance program a part of
    your continuous energy management program.


    Lighting

  • Reduce excessive illumination levels to standard levels using
    switching, delamping, etc. (Know the electrical effects before doing
    delamping.)

  • Aggressively control lighting with clock timers, delay timers,
    photocells, and/or occupancy sensors.

  • Install efficient alternatives to incandescent lighting, mercury vapor
    lighting, etc. Efficacy (lumens/watt) of various technologies range from best to worst
    approximately as follows: low pressure sodium, high pressure sodium, metal halide,
    fluorescent, mercury vapor, incandescent.

  • Select ballasts and lamps carefully with high power factor and long-term efficiency in
    mind.

  • Upgrade obsolete fluorescent systems to Compact fluorescents and electronic
    ballasts

  • Consider daylighting, skylights, etc.

  • Consider painting the walls a lighter color and using less lighting fixtures or lower

    wattages.

  • Use task lighting and reduce background illumination.

  • Re-evaluate exterior lighting strategy, type, and control. Control it aggressively.

  • Change exit signs from incandescent to LED.

    DG sets

  • Optimise loading

  • Use waste heat to generate steam/hot water /power an absorption

    chiller or preheat process or utility feeds.

  • Use jacket and head cooling water for process needs

  • Clean air filters regularly

  • Insulate exhaust pipes to reduce DG set room temperatures

  • Use cheaper heavy fuel oil for capacities more than 1MW


Buildings

  • Seal exterior cracks/openings/gaps with caulk, gasketing,
    weatherstripping, etc.

  • Consider new thermal doors, thermal windows, roofing insulation, etc.

  • Install windbreaks near exterior doors.

  • Replace single-pane glass with insulating glass.

  • Consider covering some window and skylight areas with insulated wall

    panels inside the building.

  • If visibility is not required but light is required, consider replacing exterior windows

    with insulated glass block.

  • Consider tinted glass, reflective glass, coatings, awnings, overhangs, draperies,

    blinds, and shades for sunlit exterior windows.

  • Use landscaping to advantage.

  • Add vestibules or revolving doors to primary exterior personnel doors.

  • Consider automatic doors, air curtains, strip doors, etc. at high-traffic passages

    between conditioned and non-conditioned spaces. Use self-closing doors if possible.

  • Use intermediate doors in stairways and vertical passages to minimize building stack

    effect.

  • Use dock seals at shipping and receiving doors.

  • Bring cleaning personnel in during the working day or as soon after as possible to

    minimize lighting and HVAC costs.

    Water & Wastewater

  • Recycle water, particularly for uses with less-critical quality
    requirements.

  • Recycle water, especially if sewer costs are based on water
    consumption.

  • Balance closed systems to minimize flows and reduce pump
    power requirements.

  • Eliminate once-through cooling with water.

  • Use the least expensive type of water that will satisfy the requirement.

  • Fix water leaks.

  • Test for underground water leaks. (It’s easy to do over a holiday shutdown.)

  • Check water overflow pipes for proper operating level.

  • Automate blowdown to minimize it.

  • Provide proper tools for wash down — especially self-closing nozzles.

  • Install efficient irrigation.

  • Reduce flows at water sampling stations.

  • Eliminate continuous overflow at water tanks.

  • Promptly repair leaking toilets and faucets.

  • Use water restrictors on faucets, showers, etc.

  • Use self-closing type faucets in restrooms.

  • Use the lowest possible hot water temperature.

  • Do not use a central heating system hot water boiler to provide service hot water

    during the cooling season — install a smaller, more-efficient system for the cooling

    season service hot water.

  • Consider the installation of a thermal solar system for warm water.

  • If water must be heated electrically, consider accumulation in a large insulated

    storage tank to minimize heating at on-peak electric rates.

  • Use multiple, distributed, small water heaters to minimize thermal losses in large

    piping systems.

  • Use freeze protection valves rather than manual bleeding of lines.

  • Consider leased and mobile water treatment systems, especially for deionized water.

  • Seal sumps to prevent seepage inward from necessitating extra sump pump

    operation.

  • Install pretreatment to reduce TOC and BOD surcharges.

  • Verify the water meter readings. (You’d be amazed how long a meter reading can be

    estimated after the meter breaks or the meter pit fills with water!)

  • Verify the sewer flows if the sewer bills are based on them

    Miscellaneous

  • Meter any unmetered utilities. Know what is normal efficient use. Track down causes
    of deviations.

  • Shut down spare, idling, or unneeded equipment.

  • Make sure that all of the utilities to redundant areas are turned off — including utilities

    like compressed air and cooling water.

  • Install automatic control to efficiently coordinate multiple air compressors, chillers,

    cooling tower cells, boilers, etc.

  • Renegotiate utilities contracts to reflect current loads and variations.

  • Consider buying utilities from neighbors, particularly to handle peaks.

  • Leased space often has low-bid inefficient equipment. Consider upgrades if your

    lease will continue for several more years.

  • Adjust fluid temperatures within acceptable limits to minimize undesirable heat

    transfer in long pipelines.

  • Minimize use of flow bypasses and minimize bypass flow rates.

  • Provide restriction orifices in purges (nitrogen, steam, etc.).

  • Eliminate unnecessary flow measurement orifices.

  • Consider alternatives to high pressure drops across valves.

  • Turn off winter heat tracing that is on in summer.

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page11image16752(Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi)

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